Diabetes – Symptoms and causes


Welcome to our comprehensive guide to understanding diabetes – a condition affecting millions worldwide. In this blog, we delve into the intricacies of diabetes, exploring its types, symptoms, management strategies, and potential complications. Whether you’re newly diagnosed or seeking to enhance your knowledge, join us on this journey to uncover the best dietary recommendations and lifestyle modifications crucial for effective diabetes control and management. Let’s embark on a journey toward better health and empowerment in navigating life with diabetes.

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by elevated blood sugar levels (glucose) due to the body’s inability to produce or effectively use insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar. There are several types of diabetes, each with its own causes, symptoms, and management strategies.

What are the different types of diabetes And what are its symptoms?

Type 1 diabetes, previously known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. As a result, the body cannot produce insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision. This type of diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence and requires lifelong insulin therapy.

Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of the disease. In this type, the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin or becomes resistant to its effects, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be subtle and may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of cuts or bruises. This type of diabetes is often associated with obesity, lack of physical activity, and an unhealthy diet.

Type 1.5 Diabetes (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults – LADA):

LADA, also known as type 1.5 diabetes, is a slowly progressing form of autoimmune diabetes that shares characteristics of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In LADA, the body’s immune system gradually attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency. Symptoms are similar to those of type 2 diabetes, but insulin therapy is often required over time as the condition progresses.

Crucial Insights into Prediabetes: Strategies for Early Detection and Prevention

Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. It often precedes the development of type 2 diabetes and is a risk factor for developing the condition. Prediabetes typically has no noticeable symptoms, making regular screening important for early detection and intervention.

The common link between diabetes and prediabetes is insulin resistance, where the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.

Diabetes can have several disadvantages and complications if not properly managed. It can lead to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage (neuropathy), vision problems, and other complications. Uncontrolled diabetes can also cause a decrease in insulin production and impaired insulin sensitivity, further exacerbating the condition.

What’s the best, healthy, balanced diet for diabetes? 

The foods you eat directly affect your blood glucose levels. Carbohydrates, particularly simple and refined carbohydrates, can raise blood sugar levels rapidly. It’s essential to choose nutrient-rich, high-fiber carbohydrate sources like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and pair them with lean proteins and healthy fats to help regulate blood sugar levels.

If you have diabetes, it’s recommended to eat a balanced diet that includes:

– Complex carbohydrates from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables

– Lean proteins like poultry, fish, legumes, and low-fat dairy

– Healthy fats from sources like avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil

– Fiber-rich foods to help regulate blood sugar levels and promote a feeling of fullness

– Limited amounts of added sugars, refined carbohydrates, and processed foods

Importance of Portion Control, Hydration, and Physical Activity

It’s also crucial to monitor portion sizes, stay hydrated, and engage in regular physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity and promote weight management.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, typically in the third trimester. Signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, and blurred vision. However, many women with gestational diabetes experience no noticeable symptoms, which is why prenatal screening is essential.

Importance of Prenatal Screening

Prenatal screening for gestational diabetes is important because it allows for early detection and proper management of the condition. Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to complications for both the mother and the baby, such as an increased risk of preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and macrosomia (larger-than-normal baby), which can complicate delivery and increase the risk of birth injuries.

Factors and Risk Causes

Risk factors and causes of gestational diabetes include:

– Obesity or excessive weight gain during pregnancy

– Family history of diabetes

– Advanced maternal age

– Previous history of gestational diabetes or delivering a large baby

– Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

– Certain ethnic backgrounds (e.g., Hispanic, African American, Native American, Pacific Islander)

The hormonal changes during pregnancy can lead to insulin resistance, which is a key factor in the development of gestational diabetes. As the placenta produces hormones like human placental lactogen (hPL), estrogen, and progesterone, these hormones can interfere with insulin’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels effectively, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.

Common Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes

The signs and symptoms of diabetes can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but some common signs and symptoms include:

– Increased thirst and frequent urination

– Extreme hunger or unexplained weight loss

– Fatigue and weakness

– Blurred vision

– Slow healing of cuts or bruises

– Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet (neuropathy)

Gender-Specific Symptoms

Diabetes can also cause specific symptoms in men and women. In men, it may lead to decreased sexual function and low testosterone levels, while in women, it can contribute to vaginal dryness and urinary tract infections.

Complications During Pregnancy

During pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes can lead to various complications for both the mother and the baby. For the mother, it can increase the risk of preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and infections. For the baby, it can result in macrosomia (larger-than-normal baby), birth injuries, respiratory distress, and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.

Long-Term Complications of Diabetes

Diabetes can cause several complications if left unmanaged, including:

– Cardiovascular diseases: Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

– Nerve damage (neuropathy): High blood sugar levels can damage nerves, leading to numbness, tingling, and pain in the extremities, as well as digestive problems and erectile dysfunction.

– Kidney disease (nephropathy): Diabetes can damage the kidneys, potentially leading to kidney failure and the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant.

– Eye problems (retinopathy): Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, potentially leading to vision loss or blindness.

– Skin conditions: Diabetes can cause slow healing of cuts and bruises, as well as an increased risk of skin infections.

– Hearing loss: Diabetes has been linked to an increased risk of hearing impairment.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication that occurs primarily in individuals with type 1 diabetes. It happens when the body lacks enough insulin to use glucose for energy, leading to the breakdown of fat for fuel. This process produces ketones, which can build up in the blood and cause it to become acidic.

Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include:

– Excessive thirst and frequent urination

– Nausea and vomiting

– Abdominal pain

– Rapid breathing

– Fruity breath odor (due to the presence of ketones)

– Confusion or disorientation

Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is typically treated with insulin therapy, fluid replacement, and electrolyte correction. In severe cases, hospitalisation may be required.

Role of Insulin in Diabetes Management

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for later use. Insulin plays a crucial role in the management of diabetes, particularly for individuals with type 1 diabetes and some cases of type 2 diabetes.

Types of Insulin

There are several types of insulin, including:

1. Rapid-acting insulin (e.g., insulin lispro, insulin aspart, insulin glulisine)

2. Short-acting insulin (e.g., regular insulin)

3. Intermediate-acting insulin (e.g., NPH insulin)

4. Long-acting insulin (e.g., insulin glargine, insulin detemir)

5. Ultra-long-acting insulin (e.g., insulin degludec)


Diabetes is a chronic condition where the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels due to issues with insulin production or utilisation. The main types are type 1 (the body doesn’t produce insulin), type 2 (the body becomes insulin resistant), and gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, and blurred vision. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious complications like heart disease, nerve damage, kidney problems, and vision loss. Managing diabetes involves a combination of lifestyle changes (healthy diet, exercise, weight management), medications (insulin, metformin, etc.), blood sugar monitoring, and regular checkups. With proper treatment and self-care, individuals with diabetes can live a healthy life while minimising the risk of complications.

For those looking to enhance their diabetes management, check out our Sugar Nashini Ras. This product is designed to help individuals maintain healthy blood sugar levels and improve overall well-being. Click the link to learn more about how it can support your diabetes care routine.


Q: How does diabetes affect life?

ANS: High blood glucose levels can damage blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease, vision loss, nerve damage, and foot problems. Maintaining proper blood sugar control through lifestyle changes, medication, and monitoring is crucial to prevent or delay these serious complications.

Q: How to live long life with diabetes?

ANS:Additional strategies for maintaining optimal health while living with diabetes include: Eating a healthy diet: A healthy diet involves avoiding the consumption of simple sugars, such as juice or candy, eating complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains and beans, and limiting alcohol intake.

Q: Is diabetes genetic?

ANS:Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history and lineage than type 1, and studies of twins have shown that genetics play a very strong role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Race can also play a role. Yet it also depends on environmental factors.

Q:How to control sugar without medicine?

ANS: Regular Exercise. Go for regular exercise.

  • Cut on Extra Body Weight Regular exercise, along with a proper diet, will also promote a healthy body weight.
  • A Healthy Diet.
  • Stay Hydrated.
  • Eat in Portion. 
  • Stress Management.

Q: What is the successful treatment of diabetes?

ANS: Fundamental to successful treatment of diabetes is the involvement of the patient in managing the disease. It is essential that they understand the role of diet, exercise, medication and self-monitoring of blood glucose to achieve successful treatment.

Q: How to reverse diabetes?

ANS:Exercise regularly. Work toward exercising 30 minutes a day, five days a week. 

  • Lose weight using medications, dietary changes, or bariatric (weight loss) surgery as prescribed by your doctor.
  • Eat healthily. 
  • Get enough sleep. 
  • Quit smoking. 
  • Manage sleep apnea.

Q: How to prevent Diabetes?

ANS: To prevent diabetes, focus on maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity and a balanced diet rich in whole, unprocessed foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Increase your fibre intake, quit smoking, and limit alcohol consumption. If you have prediabetes, losing weight, exercising regularly, and adopting a healthy diet can often reverse the condition and reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consult a healthcare professional for personalised guidance on lifestyle modifications and preventive measures tailored to your specific risk factors.

Q: How to get diabetes treatment?

ANS: Diabetes treatment aims to manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications. For type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy is essential. For type 2 diabetes, lifestyle modifications like a balanced diet, regular exercise, and weight management are crucial. Medications like metformin, sulfonylureas, or insulin may be prescribed to control blood sugar levels. Continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels, regular check-ups, and adhering to the treatment plan are vital. Self-care practices like portion control, carbohydrate counting, and regular physical activity also play a significant role in managing diabetes effectively and preventing further complications.

Q: What is diabetes mellitus?

ANS: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels due to the body’s inability to produce or effectively use insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar. It results from either the pancreas not producing enough insulin (type 1) or the body’s cells becoming resistant to insulin’s effects (type 2). Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious complications, including heart disease, kidney failure, vision loss, and nerve damage. Proper management through medications, lifestyle modifications, regular monitoring, and adherence to treatment plans is essential to maintain healthy blood sugar levels and prevent or delay complications.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *